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CBD / Cannabidiol

What is CBD?

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of over 100 chemical compounds known as cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant that act upon a variety of receptors (CB1 and CB2) in the human body to produce significant medical benefits without the psychoactive effect.
  • Orally AdministeredWhen ingested or taken orally, CBD offers many benefits including relaxation, pain-relief, and anti-anxiety properties.
  • Topically AdministeredApplied topically, CBD can help support the skin’s natural healing process by reducing inflammation, dryness, and acne.
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Benefits of CBD

Cannabinoids are natural occurring compounds found in our body that regulate communication between cells throughout the central nervous system and immune system to promote a general state of wellbeing. CBD also:

  • Reduces inflammation and decreases chronic pain1
  • Combats anxiety and depression2
  • Treats seizures3
  • Maintains mental clarity and brain health4
  • Benefits heart health5
  • Reduces risk of diabetes and obesity6
  • Helps fight cancer7

CBD for Skin Care

The skin has the highest amount and concentration of CB2 receptors in the body. When applied topically, CBD (a more powerful antioxidant than vitamins E and C)8 has many benefits and can repair skin damage from free-radicals like UV rays and environmental pollutants.  Because of its anti-inflammatory properties and being such a rich source of fatty acids and other skin-healthy nutrients, CBD has also been found to improve skin hydration and minimize moisture loss.

A few studies have also suggested that CBD may inhibit the growth of acne. Cannabinoid receptors found in the skin seem to be connected to the regulation of oil production in the sebaceous glands.9  We are developing cannabinoid-infused topical products to promote faster healing of damaged skin and to treat acne and other skin issues, such as psoriasis.

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Mechanism of Action

CB1 receptors are primarily found in the brain and central nervous system. CB2 receptors are primarily found in the peripheral organs, especially the immune system.
CBD exerts its actions through a variety of pathways. One site of action is the endocannabinoid system, a system of receptors found in the brain, central and peripheral nervous systems, fat, muscle, and immune cells. Naturally occurring substances called endocannabinoids and the cannabinoids found in cannabis are major effectors on this system.

Through its interactions with the endocannabinoid system, CBD may counteract many of the psychological and physiological effects of THC10. Additionally, CBD increases levels of an endocannabinoid called anandamine, which creates anti-inflammatory effects through its activation of cannabinoid receptors11.

CBD also increases signaling of the 5HT-1A serotonin receptor12. Serotonin is a chemical found in the body that regulates mood balance. Serotonin system dysfunction is associated with a variety of disorders, including depression. Many antidepressants work by increasing serotonin levels in the brain13. The actions of CBD at serotonin receptors have been associated with decreasing anxiety and protecting brain cells from death.

CBD has been shown to protect the brain from damage due to oxidative stress, decreased brain inflammation, and increased levels of a neurotransmitter called adenosine, a molecule important for energy creation and sleep regulation. Each of these effects has the potential to offer therapeutic benefits14.
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Pharmacokinetics

Bioavailability

CBD can enter the body through various routes – the most studied are inhalation and orally. The route of administration determines the “bioavailability” of CBD, the proportion of the drug that enters circulation when introduced that is able to have an active effect.

Based on the observation that CBD is effective when inhaled, the bioavailability of CBD has been studied using devices to vaporize or aerosolize the substance. Using these methods, some studies have measured bioavailability of approximately 31% of the administered dose.15 Oral administration is an easier way to deliver CBD, but it suffers from a drawback that it must pass through the liver before entering systemic circulation, which introduces the risk that it will be broken down before it can have a therapeutic effect. With orally administered CBD, only 6% of the dose makes it through the liver unaltered.16

Nano-encapsulation Technology

Given the drawbacks of current administration methods, there is clear potential for improved formulations and delivery methods that could increase the bioavailability of CBD while decreasing the production of undesirable metabolites. Zuux is developing proprietary formulations that utilize patented and patent-pending nano-encapsulation technologies to significantly improve the bioavailability profile of CBD and other cannabinoids.

Our current product formulations utilize a nano particle molecular transport mechanism to efficiently deliver orally administered CBD into the bloodstream and through the skin for topical applications. By utilizing microscopic spheres to carry active nutrients into our cells vastly increases the bioavailability and nutritional value of CBD. Since the actives are surrounded by a double-layer of lipids (fats) that closely resemble molecules of human cell membranes, they can be more readily absorbed into our bloodstream without triggering an immune response, therefore, eliminating the problem of wasted nutritional value common to most CBD products on the market today. Independent, third party testing shows that with only half the dose, a CBD product utilizing this technology exhibited absorption rates three times (300%) greater than a full dose of a standard CBD product.17

References

1Wei Xiong, Tanxing Cui, Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors. J Exp Med. 2012 Jun 4; 209(6): 1121–1134

2Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. J Psychopharmacol. 2011 Jan;25(1):121-30

3Orrin Devinsky, M.D., J. Helen Cross, Ph.D., F.R.C.P.C.H., Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome, May 25, 2017, N Engl J Med 2017; 376:2011-2020

4Cheng D, Spiro AS, Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;42(4):1383-96

5Mohanraj Rajesh, PhD, Partha Mukhopadhyay, PhD, Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Dec 14; 56(25): 2115–2125.

6Lola Weiss, Michael Zeira. Cannabidiol Arrests Onset of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice. Neuropharmacology. 2008 Jan; 54(1): 244–249.

7Sindiswa T. Lukhele and Lesetja R. Motadi. Cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa extracts inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016; 16(1): 335.

8A. J. Hampson, M. Grimaldi. Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jul 7; 95(14): 8268–8273.

9Oláh A, Markovics A. Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment. Exp Dermatol. 2016 Sep;25(9):701-7.

10Russo E, Guy GW. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(2):234-46.

11Zurier RB, Burstein SH. Cannabinoids, inflammation, and fibrosis. FASEB J. 2016;30(11):3682-3689.

12Campos AC, Fogaça MV, Sonego AB, Guimarães FS. Cannabidiol, neuroprotection and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacol Res. 2016;112:119-127.

13Blier P, De montigny C. Current advances and trends in the treatment of depression. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1994;15(7):220-6.

14Campos AC, Fogaça MV, Sonego AB, Guimarães FS. Cannabidiol, neuroprotection and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacol Res. 2016;112:119-127.

15Devinsky O, Cilio MR, Cross H, et al. Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia. 2014;55(6):791-802.

16Devinsky O, Cilio MR, Cross H, et al. Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia. 2014;55(6):791-802.

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Zuux™ Formulations

Efficient Delivery

The molecular transport system is made up of microscopic multi-layer spheres of phospholipids, which encapsulate CBD molecules, in order to bypass the digestive processes that normally degrades or limits absorption.

Superior Chemistry

In addition to exceptional absorption rates, the molecular transport mechanism we use has demonstrated the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, deposit its cargo intracellularly and enhance lymphatic circulation of nutrients.

Nano Particles

Most nutraceutical manufacturers typically use shear methods resulting in large particles (200–600 nm) that absorb poorly. Our molecular transport systems fall in the same range targeted by most pharmaceutical companies.

Smart Ingredients

Phospholipids, that make up the transport particles, are basic building blocks of cell membranes. Phospholipids feed cell membranes to ensure proper absorption of nutrients and excretion of cellular waste products and toxins.